Minerals in India

Minerals in IndiaNature has given a hidden treassur to India in the endowment of mineral resources. India is rich in manganese, ilmenite, mica and monazite.
Coal : Nearly 90% of coal is produced in Jharkhand and West Bengal. Coal is also found in Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh and Assam.
Lignite : It is found in Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Gujrat and Kashmir.
Manganese : It is mainly mined in Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
Copper : Jharkhand, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.
Gold : Kolar mines in Karnataka.
Iron : India has a rich deposite of (hematic) iron ore. Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa and Madhya Pradesh.
Lead : It is found in Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh.
Natural Gas (Cooking gas) : Assam, Mumbai high, Gujrat, and Rajasthan.
Petroleum : Assam. Mumbai high, Gujrat, Andhra Pradesh.
Silver : It is found in Rajasthan and Jharkhand.
Bauxite : Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jammu and Kashmir, Tamil Nadu.
Mica : Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan.
Gypsum : Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, U.P., Jammu and Kashmir.
Diamond : Panna Mines of Madhya Pradesh.
Sulphur : Tamil Nadu

History of India - Some General Facts

1. The Discovery of the Indus Valley Civilisation was made in 1922.
2. The main centers of the Indus Valley Civilisation were Harappa. Mohanjodero. KaliBangan, Luthal etc.
Punjab - Roper Haryana - Bhanavali
Rajasthan - Kalibangan U.P - Alangiripur
Gujarath - Lothal, Rangapur, Dolvira
3. The Aryans come into India from Central Asia and Settled first Sapta Sindhu.
4. The Indus Valley Civilisation was Urban - whereas the Aryan Civilisation was rural.
5. The Vedas are four (i) Regved (ii) Yajurved (iii) Samved and (iv) Atharvaved
Oldest Book REGVED
6. Of the four Vedas. Rigged is the oldest.
7. Jainsim and Buddism were founded during the 6th century B.C.
8. Jainism was founded by lord Mahavir whereas Buddhism was founded by lord Buddha.

9. Budda was born at Lumbini.
10. Buddhism got maximum state patronage from Ashoka.
11. Buddha delivered his first serman at Sarnath near (Varanasi).
12. Megasthenese was the Greek Ambassadar to the Court of Chandragupta Maurya.
13. The Capital of the Mauryan Empire was - Pataliputra.
14. Kanishka was the most important Kushana ruler who ruled from Purushpur.
15. Gupta period is known as the Golden age of ancient India.
16. Ashoka vowed never to wage a war and converted himself to Buddhism.
17. Chinese Buddhest monk Minen TS and visited India during the regin of Harshavardhana.
18. Sind (in India) was the first victim of Arab invasion.
19. Md. Ghaniavi plundered Somnath temple in 1026.
20. Mohammed Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chawhan in the second battle of Tarrant.
21. Qutub-ud-din Aibak was the first muslim ruler of India.
22. Razia Begum was the first woman who sat on the throne of Delhi Sultanate.
23. The founder of the mughal empire in India was Babar.
24. First battle of Panipat (1526) laid the foundation of Mughal rule in India.
25. Akbar was the greatest of the conquerors administrators and empire builders amongest the mughal rulers.
26. Din-e-ilahe was a religious sect founded by Akbar.
27. Akbar founded fathepur sikri and constructed beautiful buildings there.
28. Shahjehan died as a prisoner in the jail.
29. Aurangzeb had to face a great challenge from the morathas.
30. The English established their first factory at Surat in 1600.

31. Portuguese were the first European traders to come to India.
32. Indian National Congress was founded by A.O. Hume in 1885.
33. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose founded the Indian National Army (INA) at Singapore.
34. Robert Clive was the real founder of British power in India.
35. It was Robert Clive who set up double government in Bengal.
36. Lord Wellesley followed the policy of subsidiary Alliance to make Indian rulers as Subordinate.
37. Allies of the British power in India lord William Bentinck abolished the sati system.
38. During the tenure of William Bentinck English was made medium of instuction in India.
39. The last Governor General of British India was Lord Canning.
40. Lord Dalhouise sowed the seeds of 1857 sepoymutiny.
41. Doctrine of lapse was used against the Indian rulers by lord Dalhouise.
42. Warren Hastings introduced the permanent settlement of land revenue in Bengal.
43. Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal in 1905.
44. The sepoy mutiney of 1857 started from meerut on May 10, 1857.
45. The glorious leaders of the Revolt of 1857 were Narabsaheb, Ranilakshi Bai of Jhansi, Mughal emperor
46. Indian National Congress was founded by A.O.Hume in 1885.
47. Netaji Subhahs Chandra Bose founded the Indian National Army (INA) at Singapore.
48. Jalainwala Bagh Massacre took place at Amritsar in 1919.
49. Indian National Congress put forth the demand of complete Independence in 1929.
50. Swadeshi movement became very popular during mass agitation against partition of Bengal (1905).
51. Gandhiji’s Dandi March is associated with the Salt Law.
52. ‘Quit India’ slogan was given by the Indian National Congress in 1942.

53. Indian muslim league was founded in 1906.
54. India achieved Independence in 1947 during the tenure of lord mountbatten.
55. With the partition of India the British rule ended two Independent states India and Pakistan were created mountbatten became the first Governor General of free India in 1947.
56. Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi (Jan 30, 1948) by Nathu Ram Godse. C. Rajagopalachari took over as the first Indian Governor General (1948).
57. Indian constitution was signed and adopted on Nov.26.1949.
58. India became Sovereign Republic (Jan.26.1950) Dr. Rajendra Prasad became the first president of India (1950).

Five Year Plans of India

In our country the five year plans are  developed, executed and monitored by the Planning Commission. The eleventh plan has completed its term on March 2012 and we are currently under 12th Five Year Plan. Lets have a look at a brief introduction of all Five Year Plans of India.

1st Plan : 1951-56

  •   Priority giving to Agriculture and Irrigation.
  •   "Harrod - Domar" growth model adopted.
  •  This is the only plan in which Prices Fell.
2nd Plan : 1956-61
  •   PC Mahalanobis prepared this Plan. Priority given to basic and heavy industries.
  •   Bhilai, Rourkela and Durgapur Steel Plants, ONGC, Ranchi Heavy Engg. Corporation, Neyveli Lignite Corporation, Multi-purpose projects - Nagarjuna Sagar, Bhakra Nangal, Hirakud started during this Plan.
  •   Deficit financing Started in this plan.
  •   "Socialist pattern of society" is accepted as a goal.
3rd Plan : 1961-66
  •  This plan is a Failure. Food output Fell. i.e., became negative.
  •  Bokaro Steel Plant in 1964.
  •  Severest drought in 100 years, occurred in 1965-66.
  •  China's and Pakistan's innovations.
  •  Rupee devalued in June 1966 (devaluation was first done in 1949).
During 1966-69 : Three Annual Plans, plan holiday.
  •  Green Revolution in 1966 Kharif.
  • 14 Banks nationalized in July 1969.
4th Plan - Aim : 1969-74
  • Poverty Removal, Growth with stability with distributive justice, Self-reliance
  • Gadgil Formula : It was followed since 4th plan for central assistance for state plans. This formula was modified by NDC in Dec. 1991 when Pranab Mukherjee was the Dy. Charman, Planning Commission. Hence it became Gadgil - Mukherjee formula since 8th Plan : "Planning from below" started from 4th Plan.
  • "Garibi Hatao" slogan in 1971 Elections.
  • Privy purses were abolished in 4th Plan.
5th Plan - Aim : 1974-79
  • Poverty removal became distinct objective for the first time. DP Dhar drafted.
  • "Minimum Needs Programme" launched.
  • Command Area Development Programme was started in 1974-75 to utilise water in major and medium irrigation projects in an optimum manner.
  • Oil crisis : 1973 Sept.
  • 20 point programme replaced 5th plan, discontinued 1 year in advance.
6th Plan : 1978-83
  • Proposed by Janata party but it was defeated in elections and could implement Rolling plan for 2 years for 1978-80. Prof. DT Lakdawala was the Dy. Chairman, Planning Commission.
  • The idea "Rolling Plan" was taken from Japan.
  • "Rolling Plan" concept coined by Gunnar Myrdal.
  • "Hindu rate of Growth" crossed from 5th plan. This concept was coined by Prof. Raj Krishna (Growth Rate 3% to 3.5%)
6th Plan - Aim : 1980-85
  • Poverty eradication.
  • IRDP, TRYSEM, NREP launched during this Plan.
  • Visakhapatnam Steel Plant (Andhra Pradesh), Salem (Tamil Nadu) Bhadravathi Steel Plants were built.
7th Plan : 1985-90
  • Food, Work, Productivity, "Jawahar Rozgar Yojana" launched in April 1989.
  • Vakil and Brahmananda's wage good strategy adopted in the 7th Plan.
8th Plan : 1992-97
  • Indicative planning : Based on the model of John.W.Muller.
  • This plan achieved highest growth rate of 6.8%.
  • "Indicative planning" implemented first in France in 1947-50.
9th Plan - Aim : 1997-2002
  • Human resources development, growth with social justice and equality, agricultural rural development, important role to private sector.
10th Plan : 2002-07
  • Growth rate target 87%, Achieved 7.8%
  • Highest in the entire planning era : 5 Crore employment, largest allocation to energy.
11th Plan : 2007-12
  • Theme : "Faster and more Inclusive Growth"
  • Total proposed outlay : Rs. 36,44,718 Crores (doubled)
  • Union Government Rs. 21,56,571 Crores (59.2%)
  • States Rs. 14,88,147 Crores (40.8%)
  • Approach paper to 11th Plan approved by the Planning Commission on 18-10-2006.
  • 52nd National Development Council approved the Draft Plan on 09-12-2006.
  • 54th National Development Council approved in its meeting on 19-12-2007
  • 55th National Development council meet held on 24-07-2010
  • Central Gross Budgetary Support. Rs 14,21,711 Crores.
  • This is centre's support to plan.
  • Midterm Review of the 11th plan is done by Planning commission on 23-03-2010, and the 11th plan growth target is reduced from 9% to 8.1% (It projects the growth rate for 20-09-10, 20-10-11,   20-11-12 as 7.2%, 8.5% and 9% respectively. Also to increase the outlay on infrastructure sector from the present $ 500 billion in 11th Plan to $ 1 Trillion in 12th Plan.
12th Plan : 2012-17
  • This plan’s focus is on instilling “inclusive growth”.
  • The plan is concentrated to encourages the development of India’s agriculture, education, health and social welfare through government spending.
  • It is also expected to create employment through developing India’s manufacturing sector and move the nation higher up the value chain.
  • Our PM Manmohan Singh, however, warned that maintaining fiscal discipline is important as well.

Head quarters of UN Agencies &Other Organisations

Head quarters of UN Agencies &Other Organisations

1.Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) —Rome
2. International Labour Organisation (ILO) —Geneva
3. World Health Organisation (WHO) —Geneva
4. World meteorological Organisation (WMO) —Geneva
5. International Telecommunication Union (ITD) —Geneva
6. International Monetary Fund (IMF) —Washington D.C.
7. International Finance Corporation (IFC) —Washington D.C.
8. International Bank For Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) or World Bank —Washington
9. International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) —Montreal
10. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) —Paris
11. United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) —New York
12. Inter-governmental Maritime Consultative Organisation (IMCO) —London
13. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) —Vienna
14. United Nations Industrial Development Organizations (UNIDO) —Vienna, (Austria)
15. United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) —New York
16. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) —New York
17. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) —Geneva (Switzerland)
18. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) —Nairobi (Kenya)
19. Universal Postal Union (UPU) —Berne (Switzerland)

  © Competitive Exam Questions | Exam Material | News by CareerResults

Back to TOP